Principles and application fields of antibacterial textiles
日期:2019-06-13 编辑:ANSON nanobiotechnology (Zhuhai) Co., Ltd.
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With the improvement of living standards, consumers have changed from the initial pursuit of warm and comfortable to functional, safe and healthy consumption concepts.

Antibacterial textiles are one of the most popular functional textiles in today's textile market.

The so-called antibacterial fiber and textile refers to the functional function of antibacterial or bactericidal fiber or textile.


Which fibers have antibacterial properties?

What about the antibacterial effect?

Here are a few examples of fibers that have antibacterial properties.


At present, antibacterial fiber is mainly divided into natural antibacterial fiber and artificial antibacterial fiber:


Natural antibacterial fiber refers to the fiber with antibacterial or bactericidal function due to its own structure or chemical substances.


Artificial antibacterial fiber refers to the fiber that adds antibacterial agent to the inner or surface of the fiber through spinning or finishing, and the antibacterial agent plays a bactericidal role in the release process.


Natural antibacterial fibre


Kapok fiber


Kapok fiber is a natural fiber with large hollow structure with two closed ends, and the hollow rate is generally above 84.6%.

Some tests showed that kappa fiber had obvious bactericidal effect on escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria), but had no obvious bactericidal effect on staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria), and had obvious mite repellent effect, with the mite repellent rate reaching 87.54%.

The antibacterial test of kapok blended towel fabric shows that the fabric has no antibacterial effect.


Antibacterial mechanism: the outer wall of kapok fiber contains a natural, bitter substance;

Kapok is closed at both ends, which is not conducive to the survival of anaerobic harmful bacteria.

In the process of post-treatment and wear off, the antibacterial substances fall off from the wall and weaken the antibacterial effect.


Chitosan fibre


Chitosan fiber is a kind of fiber obtained by removing acetyl group after adding heat treatment of chitin in concentrated alkali solution. It has good affinity and non-toxicity to protein and good antibacterial effect to various bacteria and fungi. It is often used for medical dressings, such as hemostatic cotton and gauze.


Antibacterial mechanism: chitosan has direct damage or extracellular interference to cells.

Chitosan can enter cells and interact with intracellular proteins and nucleic acids to inhibit bacterial growth and interfere with normal metabolism of cells.


Artificial antibacterial fibre


Nano - silver antibacterial fiber


The antibacterial properties of nanometer silver antibacterial fibers depend on the continuous release of nanometer silver particles.

The addition method adds nanometer silver into the fiber, and its antibacterial effect is resistant to washing and durable.

Some researchers added silver ions to the inner wall of hollow fiber. However, due to the special structure of hollow fiber, silver ions could only be released from the end of the head of the fiber, so the antibacterial effect was limited.

The fiber obtained by post-processing method is not resistant to washing, and its antibacterial property gradually decreases with the increase of washing times and use time, which is not suitable for industrial use and use, and belongs to disposable antibacterial products.


Antibacterial mechanism: most scholars believe that due to the extremely large surface area of ultra-fine silver, ionization will occur in water or water medium, but the ionized silver ions will combine with some components of bacteria or proteins in plasma, or react with chloride ions to form precipitation, and the antibacterial ability will decline.

Due to its wide spectrum and strong permeability, nanosilver can promote wound healing and reduce scar formation. However, nanosilver has biological safety problems.


Organic antibacterial fiber


Organic antibacterial fiber is a kind of antibacterial fiber which is obtained by adding trace organic antibacterial agent into the fiber without changing the basic properties of the fiber.

Organic antimicrobials have been studied abroad in a mature way. They are fast and strong in sterilization and cheap in price. Quaternary ammonium salts and organic metals are the representative products.


Antibacterial mechanism: it is mainly due to the combination of antibacterial agent and anion on the cell membrane surface of bacteria, which destroys the normal operation system of cell membrane, thus achieving the antibacterial and antibacterial effect.

But organic antimicrobial agents are toxic, heat resistant, easy to produce microbial resistance and other problems.


Application field


Medical textile


Antibacterial textiles are used in the medical field, which can greatly reduce the growth of bacteria and the recovery of patients, such as surgical suture, surgical mask, surgical gloves, etc.

The antibacterial fabric made from zeolite/cotton (65/35) has an antibacterial rate of over 70% to pneumobacillus after washing for 50 times.

Home textile


Due to the good environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and oxygen, home textiles are easy to breed mites and bacteria, so the development of home antibacterial textiles has a good prospect.


Industrial textiles


Antibacterial textiles have also been used in industrial textiles such as filter cloth and automobile interior decoration.

For example, the use of antibacterial seat and interior decoration can greatly reduce the growth of bacteria in the car;

Through finishing, the filter cloth has antibacterial properties, which can greatly reduce the bacteria and other harmful bacteria